Phenomenon of phase formation via a supercooled liquid state stage in metals being electrodeposited

O. B. Girin

Abstract


Purpose. Presentation of a previously unknown phenomenon of phase formation via a supercooled liquid state stage in metals being electrodeposited discovered by the author. Findings. A brief overview of the existing views of phase formation in metals during their electrodeposition is given. Formula of the scientific discovery entitled “Phenomenon of phase formation via a supercooled liquid state stage in metals being electrodeposited” is presented and new conception of phase formation in metals being electrodeposited  on  the  its  basis  is  offered.  The  essence  of  the  discovered  phenomenon  consists  in  the  fact  that  during  the electrochemical deposition of metal in aqueous solution on a solid cathode the appearance of highly supercooled metallic liquid in the form of numerous liquid clusters of atoms, being formed in an avalanche-like manner at different places near the cathode or the growing  deposit,  and  its  extremely  fast  solidification  at  the  deposition  temperature  in  the  form  of  a crystalline,  amorphous  or quasicrystalline phase occur. The found phenomenon is caused by very fast (explosive) nature of metal precipitation due to the chain reaction of the electrochemical evolution of atoms and transition of atomic clusters from liquid state to the more stable solid one. Numerous experimental findings are presented to prove the existence of the phenomenon of phase formation via a supercooled liquid state stage in metals being electrodeposited. Originality. The discovered  phenomenon makes  fundamental  changes in the existing conceptions of phase and structure formation in metals during their electrochemical deposition and lays the foundations for creation of an  essentially  new  electrocrystallization  theory. Practical  value. The  found  phenomenon  determines  new  directions  for  the producing of electrocoatings with improved properties and provides a scientific basis for the development of advanced technologies to electrochemical synthesize new types of film materials having unique properties.


Keywords


phase formation; structure; metal being electrodeposited; supercooling; liquid state

References


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Matsui I., Takigawa Y., Yokoe D., Kato T., Uesugi T. and Higashi K. Strategy for electrodeposition of highly ductile bulk nanocrystalline metals with a face-centered cubic structure. Mater. Trans. 2014, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1859-1866. Available at: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/matertrans/55/12/55_M2014268/_pdf

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Milchev A. Nucleation phenomena in electrochemical systems: kinetic models. ChemTexts. 2016, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1-9. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40828-015-0021-1

Paunovic M. and Schlesinger M. Fundamentals of electrochemical deposition. 2nd ed. Hoboken: WILEYINTERSCIENCE, 2006, 375 p. Available at: http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471712213.html

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Sakita A.M.P., Passamani E.C., Kumar H., Cornejo D.R., Fugivara C.S., Noce R.D. and Benedetti A.V. Influence of current density on crystalline structure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co-rich CoNiW alloys. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2013, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 576-581. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254058413004483

Song J.-M., Wang D.-S., Yeh C.-H., Lu W.-C., Tsou Y.-S. and Lin S.-C. Texture and temperature dependence on the mechanical characteristics of copper electrodeposits. Mater. Sci. Eng., A. 2013, vol. 559, pp. 655-664. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921509312013184

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Valov I. and Staikov G. Nucleation and growth phenomena in nanosized electrochemical systems for resistive switching memories. J. Solid State Electrochem. 2013, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 365-371. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10008-012-1890-5

Xiao F., Hangarter C., Yoo B., Rheem Y., Lee K.H. and Myung N.V. Recent progress in electrodeposition of thermoelectric thin films and nanostructures. Electrochim. Acta. 2008, vol. 53, no. 28, pp. 8103-8117. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013468608007767

Zangari G. Electrodeposition of alloys and compounds in the era of microelectronics and energy conversion technology. Coatings. 2015, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 195-218. Available at: http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6412/5/2/


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